上蔡與延平的理學思想對朱子早年思想有重要影響，本文透過他們來觀察朱子早年學思歷程。如果用伊川「聖人本天，釋氏本心」一語概括二程對儒學的貢獻，上蔡學說實以「心」為核心，其從學於二程則有從禪學轉向儒學的意義，發展了將心的廣大虛明與日常事物相結合的持敬奶牷C上蔡學說籠罩了朱子的習禪時代與由釋返儒時代。延平之學以涵養為主，由持守而達心的虛靜，在用事時保持此心洒落。但朱子早年所受惠於延平處乃在義理上講論方面。理一分殊是朱子討論，但在兩人討論中，也出現了朝向道理或奶狺ㄕP的偏向。上蔡、延平皆重視道體體認與日用工夫，朱子所思考的更屬理一分殊結構的客觀世界。 The Neo-Confucian thought of Xie Liang-zuo and Li Tung had great influence on the early thought of Zhu Xi. Judging from the dictum of the Two Chengs that "The sages base (their lives) on Heaven, but the Buddhists base (their lives) on Mind-heart," Xie Liang-zuo centered his doctrine on Mind-heart whose meaning however showed a transition from Buddhism to Confucianism as a result of studying with the Chengs. Xie was serious in uniting his mind, his heart, and his daily affairs. Zhu Xi was influenced by the doctrines of Xie in his early years. Li Tung's learning emphasized cultivation. He reached the calmness of Mind-heart by way of holding to his serious principle, and remained comfortable while conducting daily affairs. But Zhu Xi benefited at that time from theoretical discussion with Li Tung. The concept "oneness of principle and differences of particulars," central to Zhu's concept of principle, was proposed in his discussion with Li Tung. Notwithstanding their common understanding of the concept, they exhibited different interests towards theory and effort respectively. Both Xie and Li emphasized experiencing substance and practising daily affairs, while Zhu Xi was more concerned about the objective world constructed with oneness of principle and differences of particulars.