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|Other Titles: ||Coal Mining during the Ming Dynasty: The Interaction Between Environmental Change, Governmental Measures, and Social Influence|
|Authors: ||邱仲麟;Chung-lin Chiu|
|Keywords: ||social influence|
opening of coal mines
logging of forests
|Abstract: ||本文探討的是明代的煤礦開採與生態變遷、官方措施、地方勢力之間的關係。明代華北五省的森林，因長期以來遭受砍伐，導致民生燃料日益缺伐，木柴與木炭的價格日高，百姓乃多轉而使用煤炭，官方也對煤炭稅率加以調降，不少地方官也積極尋找煤礦加以開採。萬曆二十四年至三十三年間，萬曆皇帝派遣宦官至各地開礦，雖造成嚴重的社會不安，但華北開出的煤礦卻一直使用至清代。 反觀南方地區，因為自然條件較好、森林也較茂盛，燃料不足的問題較不嚴重，雖然不少地方亦採煤利用，但燃料來源相當多元，不必完全依賴煤炭。在礦使四出期間，南方同樣受到所騷擾，而宦官被召回之後，南直隸與浙江的一些士紳，對開礦採取負面的態度，常以保護風水的理由，呈請地方官封禁山區，對開採煤礦也是如此。然而，即使有官方的禁制令，不少商人與礦主還是持續採煤，因此不斷有士紳建請官方再禁。但前後任的地方官，對開煤與否的立場並不一致，士紳、礦商與官員之間形成有趣的三角關係。必須指出的是，地方官禁制開礦，不完全是基於風水的理由，有時考慮的反而是地方治安的因素。|
This article discusses the relationship between coal mining and environmental change, governmental measures, and social influence during the Ming dynasty. Due to the long-term logging to the forests in the five provinces in Northern China during the Ming dynasty, fuel for community use had decreased with each passing day, and the price of firewood and charcoal had increased daily. The people started to convert to the use of coal, and the government also started to adjust the coal tax. Many local officials also sought to actively look for coal mines to open up. Between 1596 and 1605, the Wanli Emperor sent out eunuchs to open up mines all over the country, causing serious social unrest. The coal mines that were opened during the Ming dynasty continued to be used until the Qing dynasty.
In the regions to the south, due to the relatively better natural conditions and more luxuriant forests, the issue of lack of fuel was considerably less serious. Although coal was still mined in several places, there were several sources of fuel, and it was not necessary to rely completely on coal. During the period when the eunuchs were opening up mines, the Southern areas also suffered disruption. After the eunuchs were recalled, some members of the gentry in the Nan-Zhili and Zhejiang area took a negative attitude towards the opening of mines. They often used feng shui as a reason to apply to the local officials to seal up the mountains, and did the same in relation to coal mining. Nevertheless, even though the local government had issued prohibition orders, many merchants and mine owners continued to mine for coal, and members of the gentry continued to petition the official to re-issue prohibition orders. The previous officials and the new officials, however, adopted different positions as to whether to allow the opening of coal mines, and thus an interesting tripartite relationship was formed among the members of the gentry, the mining merchants, and the officials. It is necessary to point out that the prohibition of opening of mines by the local officials was not completely due to reasons of feng shui; it sometimes was due to reasons of local security.
|Appears in Collections:||[01 清華學報] 新37卷第2期|
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