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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nthur.lib.nthu.edu.tw/dspace/handle/987654321/75524


    Title: 梁漱溟的「儒家將興說」之檢討
    Other Titles: On Liang Su-Ming's Theory of Confucianism's Coming Ascendance
    Authors: 楊儒賓;Rur-Bin Yang
    Date: 1993/03
    Publisher: 國立清華大學出版社
    Relation: 清華學報,國立清華大學,1993,new,v.23,n.1,p61.
    Keywords: 儒家將興說
    梁漱溟
    Abstract: 梁漱溟是當代新儒家第一期的代表人物,他早年在《東西文化及其哲學》中提出空間上的中、西、印三路文化並行說,以及時間上的西、中、印三期文化遞進說。根據他的理論,西洋文化已走到窮途末路,儒家文化將取代而興。他晚年的理論(以《人心與人生》一書為代表)對早年的理論有些修正,但基本的架構不變。
    本文認為梁氏的理論是從唯心系統出發的,早期他以人生的意慾態度為主,晚期則強調心靈的自我成長,兩者皆主張由心靈不同的向度(向前一向後一持中、心為身用一身為心用一心靈獨立自主),產生了不同類型的文化。但心靈不同的向度在價值上有高低之分,直覺、現量高於理智,反射到文化上,變成中國、印度文化高於西洋文化。而當歷史已走入社會主義時期時,儒家文化的復興乃是指日可待之事。梁漱溟所以在「理論」上形成以心靈(內聖)解釋文化(外王)的想法,又與他年輕時期面臨過生命的危機,會在中國與人生問題上反覆打轉,最後因為透過消化佛教、儒家的基本義理,才解決這種矛盾的過程有關。筆者在第一、二、三節分別處理梁氏個人的親自體驗,早期的想法及晚期的想法,並指出它們之間的一致性,它們同樣是將文化的向度化約到人心靈的問題上來。最後,筆者嘗試指出梁氏這種想法反映了宋明儒以下的一種基本思想,而這樣的想法可能會面臨一些難以解決的困局。
    Liang Su-Ming is one of the main figures of contemporary Neo-Confucianism. In his early writings, he dischronically divided the cultures into three kinds of patterns: Western, Indian and Chinese culture. These three cultures are parallel simultaneously, and their characteristic forma-tions are projected by the human mind, that is, by three kinds of
    intentionalities: forward, backward and onward. Furthermore, Western cul-ture as the paradigm of forward intentionality is the incarnation of intellect. Indian culture with its backward intentionality represents mystic intuition. Chinese culture with its onward intentionality represents sympathetic intui-tion. Because intuition is higher than intellect in the hierarchy of values, and intuition is more progressive than intellect in the evolution of the mind, Chinese culture accordingly is much more valuable than Western culture. Even though Chinese culture has been frustrated in the age of capitalism,
    history will still move to its ideal end, Chinese culture will revive when socialism replaces the status of capitalism in the near future. In Liang's late writings, he still held the belief that Confucianism will soon be broadly accepted, and he still put his belief in the basis of his philosophy of culture. He held that there are three stages of historical development, one is the age of body over mine, Western culture belongs to this stage. The other is the age of mind over body, Chinese culture belongs to it. The third is the age of the mind's absolute autonomy. Because history is progressive, consequently,
    Chinese culture (Confucianism is the presensertative) shall have her day because humanistic socialism shall triumph soon.
    This article traces Liang's consciousness of the problem to his crisis in adolescence. Liang confronted two conflicting problems-the meaning of life and the problems of Culture & Society. He tried to commit suicide twice to escape the pain he suffered by taking the conflict too seriously. Only by the help of Buddhism first, and of Confucianism second, was he able to resolve this problem. He reduced the problem of culture and society to one of will, therefore, two kinds of problems converged into one. This article, at last, reflects upon the premises of Liang's thoughts, and points to some problems implicit in his explaination of Confucianism's fate.
    URI: http://thjcs.hss.nthu.edu.tw/catalogue_detail.php?id=248
    http://thup.et.nthu.edu.tw/
    http://nthur.lib.nthu.edu.tw/dspace/handle/987654321/75524
    Appears in Collections:[01 清華學報] 新23卷第1期

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