本文探討光復後台灣人類學的發展趨勢，作者將之分為三個發展的時期。首先是一九四九年至一九六五年的十五年間，這是延續大陸時代所謂“南派”的民族學研究傳統，以描述重建台灣土著民族的歷史文化為工作重心，所以可以說是著重於民族誌學的時代。其後自一九六五年至一九八o年的第二個十五年間，台灣人類學的研究趨勢有重大轉變，研究的對象已自高山族轉為漢人社會的研究，而且有從民族誌學轉向社會人類學的趨勢，這很像大陸時代“北派”人類學研究特色，而此時大陸之研究却又轉向於民族誌的工作，因此造成“南北互相易位”的有趣現象。此外，在這時期中，人類學與其他社會科學在方法與理論上的交流，以至於形成所謂“社會科學中國化”的運動，也是其特色之一。自一九八O年以後，新的研究趨勢又逐漸形成，原本社會科學趨向的研究雖繼續發展，但提倡人類學也是人文學的主張不時出現，把“人”的現象看成有別於追 求通則的科學，而應尋求其意義與自我的趨勢特別突顯，這是一個等待大力開展的領域。 The paper is to describe and analyze the development of anthropologi-cal studies in Taiwan during the last 45 years. The author divides this devel-opment iinto three stages. The first stage is from 1949 to 1965, it was a period emphasized on traditional ethnographic works, since it major focal point was to reconstruct the history of cultural life of the Taiwan Aborigines. During the period from 1965 to 1980, the trend of the anthropological research on the island had been undergone great changes, besides the Chinese society has been added to the research subject, the theoretical orien- tation has been much more emphasized on social anthropological side, and the interdisciplinary research orientation among the social sciences were clearly shown. A movement can be called "sinicization of social science reserach" was also a maj or research trend during this period. However, ever since 1980 until now, a trend of so-called interpretative anthropology has been popular among the academic circle, a question whether anthropology is a social science disciplines which aims to search for nomethetic principles, or a humanistic disciplines which is to gain idiographic understanding, has been asked again and again among the young workers. This is a trend to be dominant during the years to come.