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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nthur.lib.nthu.edu.tw/dspace/handle/987654321/75536

    Title: 知言、踐形與聖人
    Other Titles: Understanding of Languages, Embodiment & Sage
    Authors: 楊儒賓;Rur-Bin Yang
    Date: 1993/12
    Publisher: 國立清華大學出版社
    Relation: 清華學報,國立清華大學,1993,new,v.23,n.4.p401
    Keywords: 聖人
    Understanding of Languages
    Abstract: 孟子思想有一項很大的特色,此即道德意識與身體的表現分不開來,這就是有名的踐形觀。踐形理論反映到學者的聽覺上來,即有「知言1理論。換言之,「知書」理論是「踐形」理論的一個分枝。 知雷理論牽涉到雷者與聽者兩部分。就前者而書,此理論預設了「語言可以反映精神向度」的想法。在孟子看來,語音不會是中性的,也不可能是純粹客觀的,它一定會反映出雷者的某種意圖或精神層次,「言為心聲」的想法是中國「內外或表裡一致」理論的縮影。至於就聽者而雷,能否聽出雷者語言中的喜怒善惡,尤為孟子要求君子證道的根本要件。至於書者與聽者所以能共享一溝通的價值領域,除了言語原本先於人的意識存在,我們聽到的聲音永遠是[有意義」的聲音外,孟子的知雷理論亦與「氣」有密切關係。從春秋直到秦漢前,國人論語言的地位的,往往採L氣一雷一志」的理論架構。氣是語言存有的根基,一切有形、有音的活動都可以逆推到書說以前的氣之流行。所以早在人的意識興起以前,書者與聽者已具有共識的氣之流行層面。當然,聽者想聽懂雷者的意義,除了兩者具有氣的存有論基礎外,聽者「養氣」、「格物」的先行工夫也必須去做。在孟子看來,「知書」與「知人論世」、「養氣」的工夫都是分不開的。本文也藉著解釋告子的不動心理論,襯托出他與孟子在「氣一書一志」的關係之理解上,有相當大的出入。 This is one of the series of my papers on the problems of embodiment of body in Mencius; it attempts to discuss the relationship among hearing (per-ception) . truth and personality. I propose four main points. First, according to Mencius, any sound is not only the physical-physiological movement, it is also the transformed entity of spirit, sound is the outer aspect of the inner invisible personality. Second, the human body is a combined structure of synesthesia: all perceptions are homogenerous, the five sensations and spiri-tual activities can be translated into each other. Therefore, a well-cultivated sense of hearing presupposes the existence of a well-cultivated body, and vice versa. Third, the idea of a sage in Mencius is not limited to the field of ethics or of human nature; it also requires the transformation of the quality
    of perceptions, especially those of sound and hearing. Fourth, in order to understand and evaluate the languages well, students should discipline their own individual minds and bodies; furthermore, they also should understand
    the essence of history and society.
    URI: http://thjcs.hss.nthu.edu.tw/catalogue_detail.php?id=868
    Appears in Collections:[01 清華學報] 新23卷第4期

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