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    题名: 漢語中梵文外來語之研究
    其它题名: A Study of Sanskrit Loanwords in Chinese
    作者: 陳淑芬;Shu-fen Chen
    日期: 2000/09
    出版者: 國立清華大學出版社
    關聯: 清華學報,國立清華大學,2000,new,v.30,n.3,p375.
    关键词: 漢語
    摘要: ABSTRACT
    In this study the data were collected from Guoyu Ribao's Loanwords Dictionary (1985). There are 112 Sanskrit words, which have been rendered into 293 Chinese lexical items. We found that of the 293 items, only 20, that is, less than 7%, are not phonetic loans. In fact, out of the 20 loanwords, 18 are hybrids, namely, one part of the compound loanword is a phonetic loan, and the other part is a translated morpheme, or an added semantic marker. In Section 2, we introduce some scholars' classifications of loanwords, and then classify the 293 Sanskrit loanwords according to Haugen's (1950), Wu's (1994) and Chen's (2000) studies. The Sanskrit loanwords are classified into three groups: (1) phonetic loans, for example, ["HH'/flJ; (2) hybrids: which include (a) half -transliteration and half -translation, for example, r^fSHafJ, (b) translation plus a semantic marker, for example, rStifUjJ and (c) double renditions, for example, [ffltrrfftJ; (3) renditions plus added information, for example, [HSR f|5_|. In Section 3, several kinds of phonological nativization are presented to show how Chinese scholars transliterated the Sanskrit words. Phonological nativization refers to the use of the most similar native sounds to transliterate the borrowed sounds if the foreign sounds cannot be found in the borrowing languages. We discuss the phonological nativization of the vowels and the phonological nativization of the consonants; the latter is divided into seven aspects: voicing, aspiration, palatal stops, retroflexes, nasals, semivowels and fricatives. Section 4 displays two other processes of the Sinicization of Sanskrit terms: syllable structure Sinicization and syllable length Sinicization. Finally, Section 5 gives a brief summary of the paper.
    * I am very grateful to the two anonymous reviewers who have given me invaluable advice and comments on this paper. Without their critical comments, this paper would not be presentable. All the faults remain mine.
    Key Words: Sanskrit, loanwords, transliteration, phonetic loans, hybrid (half-transliteration, half-translation), semantic marker, loan translations, phonological nativization, syllable structure Sinicization, syllable length Sinicization
    显示于类别:[01 清華學報] 新30卷第3期


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