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|Other Titles: ||The Construction and Development of the Yang-ming School|
|Authors: ||呂妙芬;Miaw-fen Lu|
|Abstract: ||本文主旨在探討王陽明個人的思想如何快速成功地構建成一個著名的新學派，以及陽明學如何在王陽明逝世後發展成蓆捲全國的學術風潮。 關於陽明學派的歷史，可以簡單分兩期：(一)、從學派於1510年後期建構成功開始到王陽明去世(1528)止，學派主要以王陽明這個賦領導魅力的領袖為依歸，而王陽明在江西的執政則是學派建構的重要關鍵，簡言之，軍事勝利使其得以轉換政治資源為提倡學術的文化資源。但是，在學派建構的過程中，來自朝廷官僚體制內的阻力亦極為明顯。(二)、王陽明逝世後，門徒仍具強烈同門意識，努力提倡師教，但分散各地紛紛成立講會以維繫、傳遞陽明學，此時學派以各地講會為核心，透過講會的傳播，終於在嘉靖年間達到鼎盛期。本文亦著重討論陽明學作為私學與當時官方政治間的複雜關係，特別置於科舉考試文化下觀照。陽明學興起主要在批判科舉的功利士習，反對程朱官學，但其本身又是衍生於科舉制度下的學術活動，吸引習舉業的年輕士子們為主要聽眾，也必須倚靠科舉帶出的政治和文化影響力來做為學派發展的資源。這樣既倚賴又批判的關係主導著學派的發展歷史，根據這段歷史我們可以說：從上而下的政治力量雖然在提倡或壓抑私學時，常具有極大的威力，陽明學的興衰也與此息息相關，然而民間自發的私學精神卻是陽明學興起的根源，也是政治壓抑無法熄滅的火；不過，我們也無法單純歌頌私學的自主性，因為在真實的活動裡，私學常常糾結、運用著地方政治中的人脈與資源來擴展，其目的也經常極賦政治企圖。|
Based on Wang Yang-ming's philosophy, the Yang-ming school was sue-cessfully constructed during Wang Yang-ming's lifetime. Although both challenges from the academic field and persecution from the government ensued immediately after the construction of the school, the Yang-ming school continued to develop into the most prominent intellectual school during the Ming. This article deals primarily with the historical development of the Yang-ming school and its relationship with the contemporary political powers. The school's history was divided into two major periods. First, from the construction of the school to the death of Wang Yang-ming, Wang's remarkable political and military success (in the late 1510s) in the Chiang-hsi area was viewed as a crucial point in the construction of the Yang-ming school. During this period, the school focused on its charismatic leader, Wang Yang-ming, and had its roots deepened into the Chiang-hsi, Chieh-chiang, and Nan-ching areas. Secondly, after Wang Yang-ming's death in 1528, the spread of the Yang-ming learning was maintained in the chiang-hui activities, associations of local gentry and students for pursuing the Yang-ming learning. During this period, although Wang Yang-ming's disciples possessed strong school consciousness and tried to promote their master's ideas, the style and content of the chiang-hui had no unified regulations, but leaned to meet their local members' needs. This situation, therefore, led to diversity within the Yang-ming school and the formation of an intellectual movement with broad influences of the Yang-ming learning, which dominated the late-Ming intellectual fields. As for the relationship between the Yang-ming school and the political powers, an ambivalent relationship having both submissive and critical spirits is emphasized in this article. Not only in the school's attitude toward the civil service1 examination system and the Ch'eng-Chu orthodoxy, but also in its strategies to convert political capital to cultural capital and use local political and social sources to construct the chiang-hui and academies, the important institutes of private educational activities, this ambivalent relationship between the Yang-ming school and the political powers is revealed. Although political power from the top had great influence in promoting or depressing the private educational activities, including the Yang-ming learning, it definitely could not extinguish the autonomy and free spirit of private educational activities. However, one cannot merely eulogize the autonomy of private educational activities either, since in actual practice, they possessed political ambitions and were usually involved in manipulating local political power.
|Appears in Collections:||[01 清華學報] 新29卷第2期|
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