This paper presents a three-dimensional thermoelastic fracture analysis for a cylindrical pipe containing an internal surface crack subjected to convection cooling on its inner surface. To predict its thermoelastic fracture behaviors, the path-independent integral approximately J1, which is physically the energy release rate per unit area of crack extension along the direction of crack growth, is computed by an accurate three-dimensional finite element model which provides both heat transfer and thermal stress analysis. The influence of realistic convection cooling on the inner surface of the cylindrical pipe on the computation of the temperature and the thermal stress intensity factor is evaluated. The variation of the thermal stress intensity factor along the crack front versus various configuration parameters and Biot numbers is also presented. This work is helpful to the safety evaluation of cylindrical pipes subjected to convection cooling.