This study explores the impact of two factors that are prominent in the service literature: customer participation and service expectation. Owing to the interactive nature of services, customers often participate in the co-production of the service. In addition, customers normally enter into the service with certain expectations regarding the level of service they are likely to receive. The survey argues that the participative roles adopted by customers in service specification and delivery and their pre-encounter service expectations influence how customers attribute the causes of service failure. Finally, the implications from the findings are discussed and directions for future research are provided. The effect of emotional response caused by a service failure on locus attributions remains to be further investigated.