Mou Zongsan has been treated as only a philosopher up till now. He, however, had strong political and social concerns in his life and did not simply develop his own conceptual speculation sheltered in the ivory tower. He often had thorough and unique observations on political, social, economic, historical, and cultural issues of the day. Some concerns appeared throughout his life, while others emerged from specific historical periods, had resonance with social realities of those periods, and constituted an integral part of the discussion or debate of the intellectual community of the time. Rural problems became the focus of the Chinese economy and received attention from almost all social classes in the 1930s. Mou Zongsan also published a series of articles in 1934 and 1935 in which he developed his views on Chinese rural problems, and accordingly became one of the intellectuals who were concerned about and probed problems of rural China in the 1930s. Regrettably, those articles by Mou have not been noticed and discussed in the study of Mou Zongsan and the studies of Chinese rural problems in the 1930s. An examination of Mou Zongsan's study of Chinese rural problems in the 1930s not only can help us to know an important segment of Mou's own thought and understand his concern and achievement besides philosophy, but also can broaden and deepen our knowledge of the discussion of and debate over Chinese rural problems in the 1930s. This article includes two main parts: to clarify his basic judgment of the economic situation and social status of rural China, and to analyze his prescription to solve the problems of rural China.