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    National Tsing Hua University Institutional Repository > 清華出版品 > 01 清華學報 > 新34卷第1期 >  風塵、街壤與氣味:明清北京的生活環境與士人的帝都印象

    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nthur.lib.nthu.edu.tw/dspace/handle/987654321/80422

    Title: 風塵、街壤與氣味:明清北京的生活環境與士人的帝都印象
    Other Titles: Dust in the Wind and Smell of the Road: The Living Environment of Imperial Beijing Through the Eyes of the Literati, 1403-1911
    Authors: 邱仲麟;Chung-lin Chiu
    Date: 2004/06
    Publisher: 國立清華大學出版社
    Relation: 清華學報,國立清華大學,2004,new,34,n.1,p181.
    Keywords: 氣味
    road, smell
    public health
    Abstract: 本文主旨在考察明清士人對於北京生活環境的印象與記憶。全文涉及三個主題,即風塵、街壤與氣味。作為明清帝國的首都,北京有著宏偉的城牆,壯麗的宮殿,堂皇的衙署,繁華的市街,與眾多的人口。然而,北京卻有著環境衛生不佳的問題。生活在明清的北京,每天必須要接觸的是:漫天的風沙,無所不在的灰塵,滿街的人畜糞穢,泥濘、積水與凹凸不平的危險街道;而北京城市的空氣,也是穢臭難聞的。對於這樣的生活環境,明清從南方來的士人,留下了相當多的記載,當中大部分的記憶都不是太好。由於環境衛生的問題一直無法改善,加上自然條件比不上南方,相當多的士人原本帶著憧憬前來,卻多帶著失望的心情離開。 This study aims to discuss the kinds of impressions and memories left on the literati by the living environment of Imperial Beijing. There are three topics involvedust, road and the smell.Beijing, the capital of Ming and Qing Dynasty, contains the grand city walls, magnificent palaces, spectacular offices of bureaucracy, prosperous streets, and numerous populations. However, Beijing has problems in severe environmental hygiene. Life in Imperial Beijing is full of dust in the wind, excrement on the street, muddy and scraggy roads, and horrible smells in the air. For such a living environment, the literati from the south left with many records that mostly reveal negative memories. However, these records also give us the above-mentioned profile of the city and show us the memories passed away. For example, the denizens of Beijing cover themselves with a veil outdoors to defend against the sand encroaching upon their eyes; the authorities of the Qing dynasty designated of specific personnel to spill the street with water to reduce the dusty conditions. On the other hand, the literati produced another special diagram representing people (male mainly) squating down all the time on both sides of the street. This diagram results from the lack of toilets in Beijing residences. As for the street, it's very difficult to describe the conditions. In addition to various smells, the ashes and bits of coal that residents dump every day also accumulate on the streets. Thus, a serious draining problem occured with the streets accumulatings garbage higher than the residences on both sides. In order to solve the draining problem, the authorities of the Ming and Qing Dynasty dug ditch in the late spring every year. However, the mud digging from the ditch caused traffic problems on the streets. Because the environmental problems could not be improved, and the natural milieu was inferior to that of the south, many literati came with expectation but left with disappointment.
    URI: http://thjcs.hss.nthu.edu.tw/catalogue_detail.php?id=52
    Appears in Collections:[01 清華學報] 新34卷第1期

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