In this paper, we propose a novel image retargeting algorithm to resize images based on the extracted saliency information from the compressed domain. Firstly, we utilize DCT coefficients in JPEG bitstream to perform saliency detection with the consideration of the human visual sensitivity. The obtained saliency information is used to determine the relative visual importance of each 8 x 8 block for the image. Furthermore, we propose a new adaptive block-level seam removal operation for connected blocks to resize the image. Thanks to the directly derived saliency information from the compressed domain, the proposed image retargeting algorithm effectively preserves the objects of attention, efficiently removes the less crucial regions, and therefore significantly outperforms the relevant state-of-the-art algorithms, as demonstrated with the careful analysis and in the extensive experiments.