本研究關注中國大陸城市初級中學教育階層化現象，尤其以戶籍制度二元管理模式，構築持不同戶籍者之受教人群分類範疇。透過與新馬克思主義學派之階級研究及文化資本理論等對話，探究源自不同家庭社經背景之子女，面臨教育不平等的結構桎梏，其所呈現的能動性與意識型態究竟為何？ 本研究經由深度訪談六名本地子女、八名農民工子女、兩名學校老師，輔以多元資料蒐集之方式，梳理中國城市初級中學教育之發展脈絡、歷史光譜等，以考察優勢階級子女與弱勢階級子女的學涯路徑，重視個體間之能動性與多樣性。同時，納入性別視角，以剖析性別與學習能動性之差異。 本研究的貢獻是：第一，中國大陸城市初級中學以戶籍制度作為入學與升學之機制，導致持非本地戶籍者缺乏公平競逐教育資源之機會。第二，源自於戶籍制度及家庭社經背景的分歧，致使本地子女與農民工子女的學涯路徑大相逕庭，多數本地子女爭相競逐取得優質教育資源；反觀，更多地農民工子女僅能接納國家予其之次等教育資源。第三，勞工階級子女符合Paul Willis所探究之小夥子們，因洞察學校教育作為資本主義的篩選機制，促其以反學校文化抵抗資本主義之運作邏輯。但Paul Willis輕忽勞工階級間之性別差異。勞工階級子女存在差異化之性別符碼，更多的女性採取異於男性之行動策略，試圖爭取階級流動的機會。第四，Paul Willis未留意教育商品化之現象。歷經變革的教育結構，促使作為公益性及非營利性的教育事業，因校際間缺乏公平競爭渠道，從而助長其走向營利性之發展方向。同時，教育分流時，由校長至老師將學生視為商品，藉由推薦學校等各式不當手段剝削及轉售學生，從事隱微不彰之獲利行為，至此發展獨具中國特色的中學生／教育商品化現象。 Especially on the category of education population for those who hold different type of household register under the dualism of household registration (hukou戶口) system, this research focus on the phenomenon of educational stratification in China’s urban junior high school. Following the insights of Neo-Marxism and the theory of cultural capital, this thesis explores the initiative and ideology of children from different family social-economic background that faces structural shackles of educational inequality. This study investigates the initiative and diversity among the individuals and establishes the learning path of different socio-economic background children. Through in-depth interviews with 6 local children, 8 migrant workers’ children and 2 teachers, I collect the data based on various perspectives and scrutinizing the historical context of junior high school development in China. Meanwhile, this study adds a gender perspective to analyze the difference between gender and learning motivation. There are 4 significant contributions in my study. (1) It demonstrates the mechanism for admission and enrollment based on hukou system in urban China junior high school, resulting in non-local hukou holders an unfair chance to compete for the educational resources. (2) The differences of hukou system and family social-economic background leads to a huge learning gap between local children and migrant workers’ children. Most of indigenous children have advanced educational resources. On the contrary, most of migrant workers’ children can only receive limited educational resources. (3) It discovers that Chinese junior high school young boys are similar to Paul Willis’s “lads” by using education as a screening mechanism for capitalism, which leads those lads to counter the school education in order to against the operation of the logic of capitalism. However, he ignored the gender difference within the working class. According to gender/sex differences between children of working-class, girls tend to take strategies, trying to pursue opportunities for class mobility. (4) Willis also didn’t pay attention to the phenomenon of the commercialization of education, public welfare and non-profits school education are becoming profit orientation. Meanwhile, when students face with educational diversion, principals and teachers treat students as the commodity, who exploit and resell students through school recommending or various of illicit means to engage in subtle profitable behavior, which creates the unique educational commercialization phenomenon of junior high schools in China.