|Abstract: || 本論文的研究主題是中國城市養老制度的福利階層化。目前中國城市養老制度以國家社會保險為主，待遇給付的階層化設計，不僅降低國家福利制度的再分配功能，突顯職業身分的社會不平等，最後導致整個退休人口的福利階層化。本研究借鏡西方福利國家理論中的歷史制度論觀點，疏理過往相關的文獻和政策文件，並赴五個城市開展田野調查，共訪談三十五名退休老人及相關服務工作者。|
The study focuses on the welfare stratification of aging population in urban China. In this study, I use the historical institutionalism of Welfare State Theories to study the development of the endowment insurance system. Currently, the welfare institution predominantly bases on the endowment insurance system .Its stratification of transfer payments not only reduces the redistributive function of welfare state, highlights the occupation of social inequality, but leads the welfare stratification of the whole aging population. The study uses the policy documents of endowment insurance and field research in 5 cities, then totally interview 35 retired people and service providers to explain the welfare stratification of aging population in urban China.
On the one hand, the study points out institutional legacy of planned economy period that is the reason of the welfare stratification and elderly inequality. According to the path dependence of these legacies, the welfare stratification appears the endowment insurance system, including the work-unit system, the household registration system (hukuo) ,and the cadre administer rank system. Meanwhile, The existing social stratification and social inequality can survive. To sum up, the study finds out the welfare stratification and elderly inequality in urban China closely affects by the institutional arrangements and economic development strategies.
On the other hand, under the diversification of welfare supply, the gap of pension and retired resources emerge between people which different socio-economic status. The differentiation services of welfare providers also deteriorate elderly inequality. In the future, the acceleration of marketization will continually threaten the fairness of redistribution. Therefore, without any change, the welfare stratification and elderly inequality will worsen in the aging society.
Keywords: Chinese Studies, social welfare system, welfare stratification, social inequality